The town has only a small territory, but it is nearly all excellent land, and there are quite a number of very valuable farms. In comparison, however, with the milling and manufacturing operations, the agricultural interests are not large.



The Button Fire-Engine Works were established in 1834, by the firm of William Platt & Co., of which L. Button was a member. The works were then erected on the King canal, now the place of the Gage machine-works. They were moved to their present place, foot of Third street, about 1850, the proprietors preferring to use steam-power instead of the irregular and unreliable water-power. Their line of work consists of steam and hand fire-engines, hose-carriages, hook-and-ladder trucks, and fire apparatus generally.

They employ about fifty men when running at their usual rate. The present firm is L. Button & Son.

The Rock Island Flouring-Mills, J. B. Enos & Co., were established in 1847. The first buildings were burned in 1862 or 1863. The present buildings were erected immediately after. They are run by water-power from the King canal. They contain eight run of stone, and manufacture a superior quality of flour, by what is known as the new process of grinding. The mill does no custom-work. It has the capacity for making about two hundred and twenty-five barrels a day of the flour described above. They could make about four hundred barrels the old way. The number of men employed is about twenty. The firm own two canal-boats, shipping their own product by them direct to New York. They also own a large elevator and store-house on the Champlain canal, in the village.

Stock and Die Manufactory. - In 1847, James Holroyd commenced this business, and it is still continued under the firm-name of Holroyd & Co., James Holroyd being still a member. From forty to fifty men are employed in ordinary times. They manufacture dies for blacksmiths' and machinists' use, and also for gas- or steam-fitting. The business may be estimated at $60,000 to $70,000 a year of finished work, yet the market rates, the general demand, and other circumstances, render this statement only an approximate one. The water-power is from the King canal. The first buildings were taken down in 1864, and the present ones erected on the same site, greatly enlarged and improved.

The Straw-Board Manufactory is now owned by the Saratoga County Bank of Waterford, and is carried on by Edwards & Younglove, Jr. They employ twelve men. The place was bought by Levi Dodge about 1864, and changed into its present use. Previous to that Henry Lape had owned the property, and it was then a feed-mill. The present building was erected in 1874, the older one having been destroyed by fire. It was probably the oldest building on the hydraulic canal, and had once been a button-manufactory, and then a barley-mill.

The Gage Machine-Works were founded in 1835 by George Gage. They are still owned and run by him now, after the lapse of forty years. The buildings are the same and on the same site. The business is the making of machinists' tools, paper-mill machinery, knitting-mill machinery, as well as machinery in general. Have usually employed from twenty-five to thirty men.

Mohawk and Hudson Paper-Mill. - This was established in 1872 by a company bearing the same name as the mill, but soon after the mill became the sole property of Frank Gilbert, one of the company, and has been operated by him to the present time. Printing-paper only is made, from rags, wood, and straw. The business has not been affected to any great extent by the hard times, but the mills have continued to turn out about three tons of paper a day. Forty hands are employed, and the paper is sold in Troy, Albany, and New York. The power is from the King canal. This mill stands upon the site of an older one erected many years ago, and had been occupied by various enterprises, - a foundry, an axe-factory, a shoddy-mill (so called), and a knitting-mill; near it was a chair-factory.

The Brooks Manufactory of Nuts commenced in one of the tenements of the Gage machine-works, about 1835. It was afterwards moved to the present place of Holroyd, then to Cohoes, and finally, about six years ago, to the present place, next south of the paper-mill. The establishment is run at the present time by a son of Mr. Brooks, the original proprietor.

The Pilot Knitting-Mill was established in 1875 by Van Schoonhoven & Co., and is still operated by them. They make all forms of knit goods, and generally employ eighty to ninety hands. The mill next north of the Pilot is owned by parties in Cohoes. It was built four or five years ago, and is now closed. The power for the Pilot mill is derived direct from the Mohawk above the State dam; the others from a dam just below.

The Franklin Ink-Works are an old affair in Waterford, having been commenced in 1831-35. The present proprietors are G.W. and W.M. Eddy. The manufacture of ink was abandoned many years ago, and the sole business now is making lampblack.

The Waterford Sawing-Mills, for the sawing of mahogany and fancy woods, veneers, and looking-glass backs, were established in Cohoes in 1835, but the business was removed to Waterford in 1872. The power is derived from the overflow of the feeder to the Champlain canal. The buildings were enlarged and improved. Previously, an ordinary saw-mill had been on the site for many years.

The Globe Iron-Works are located at the foot of Third street, and were established by Robert Pinkerton, in 1873. Soon after, M.C. Jones was associated with him, and the firm became Pinkerton & Jones. They manufactured all kinds of steam-boilers, bleachers' tanks, and sheet-iron work, and usually employed ten hands. The buildings were formerly a part of the property of the Button Fire-Engine company.

Waterford Soap- and Candle-Factory is an old affair. The business was commenced about 1830, by Joshua and Elisha Morse. Afterwards the firm became Morse & Blake, and in later years Wm. H. Morse, the present owner, became the sole proprietor. The great fire in 1841 began in the barn on these premises.

The buildings were re-erected in 1860, and again improved in 1873, and the fixtures are unusually extensive and complete; have made some of the time ten thousand boxes of soap and candles in the year. It is the largest establishment of the kind north of Albany.

The Massasoit Knitting-Mills were built in 1872, on the foundation of the old Shatemuck flouring-mills. The firm remains the same, E.G. Munson manager. They manufacture all kinds of ladies' and gentlemen's knit-wear, run six sets of machinery, and produce five hundred dozen a week, employing about one hundred hands. Power is furnished by the Mohawk river, above the State dam.

The Stock, Dye, and Tool Works, known by the firm-name of J.M. King & Co., was founded ia 1829 by Daniel B. King, and is a very extensive and complete establishment. Daniel King was a brother of Fuller King, the projector of the hydraulic canal.

The business of the Mohawk and Hudson Manufacturing Company was founded by C.W. Eddy in 1847, and he continued the proprietor until 1875, when the present owners came into possession. The company are iron and brass founders and machinists. They are the owners of patents and manufacturers of straight-way valves and fire-hydrants, also the Dodge hay-press. They employ from thirty to fifty men, and have a very extensive and complete establishment. The company two years ago also became the owner of the stove-patterns and works of G.W. Eddy, and manufacture the full line of work formerly made by him.

The Brush-making business in Waterford was begun in 1864 by E. Van Kleeek, in a building erected for the purpose, next to the saw-mill of the veneering manufactory, and furnished with power from the Champlain canal. A large variety of brushes is made, and the amount sometimes reaches six thousand dozen a year. Twenty hands are employed. The business was moved to Waterford from Lansingburg, where it had been carried on by the father of Mr. Van Kleeek for twenty-five years or more.

The mills of the Hudson Valley Knitting Company are situated upon the Champlain canal farther north than the other manufacturing establishments. The building was formerly the flouring-mill of T.M. Vail & Sons. It was converted into a knitting-mill in 1870 or '71, having been unused for some time previous. It was then called the Alaska mill, and was carried on by Holroyd, Safely & Dowd. Within the last year it passed into the hands of the present company, and is now being run well up to its full capacity, employing about one hundred hands, and turning out work at the rate of twenty-five thousand dozen a year, fine hosiery, shirts, and drawers.

The cooper business was a prominent feature of Waterford from, perhaps, 1825 down to a very recent period. Large numbers of barrels were made. Among the principal makers were Driscoll, Sheridan, Brewster, and Preston. The business has declined, but there are still two shops doing quite an extensive business, - one by Mr. Sheridan, the other by Mr. Frederickson. Mr. Preston is also engaged in the business on a smaller scale.

George Gage is one of the oldest manufacturers along the line of the hydraulic canal, and still engaged in business. He came from New Hampshire in 1829, arriving, as he quaintly states in reply to interviewers, "June 15, at four o'clock in the afternoon, and went up to look at the hydraulic canal about an hour later." The canal had been made the year before, extending then only down to what is now the dye-works of the King Company. John Fuller King designed and constructed the canal. He was from Coleraine, Mass., was an active business man, and an inventor, with Mr. Livingston, of improved canal-locks. He died about 1835, and the canal has been called from him "the King Canal." Mr. Gage furnishes the following items in relation to the various enterprises. At the lower end of the canal as first built was a cotton-factory, the place of the present King dye-works. Colonel Olney had a machine-shop on the site of the present straw- board manufactory. There was also a furnace, by George Kilby and Vandewerker, where the paper-mill now stands. Next was a twine-factory, built about 1836, where Brooks' nut-factory stands at the present time. Next, about 1831, the ink-factory was established. That year the canal was extended to its present length, and a saw-mill erected at the lower end, below what is now the Enos mills. The first flouring-mill on the site of Enos was built about 1835. The buildings of the Gage machine-works were erected by Baker, Van Schoonhoven, Kimball, and Sherwood, about 1833, after the fire that burned Olney's shops. They were used a short time for the machine-works of Olney, also of Conkling & Humphrey, who previous to the fire had been carrying on business next to Olney. Mr. Gage commenced business in 1834, and has continued it till the present time, forty-four years. The Brooks nut-manufactory was commenced in one of the tenements of the Gage buildings about 1835, then removed to where Holroyd's works are now located, then to Cohoes, and about six years ago back to its present place. The works are now owned by a son of Mr. Brooks. The King dye business, originally begun in Olney's shops, was continued after the fire in the Gage buildings, and then removed to its present place. Holroyd also commenced his business in the Gage building. The Button fire-engine works were also in the Gage buildings for fifteen or twenty years.

Mr. Gage understands that the earliest flouring-mill, eighty to one hundred years ago, was at the present waterpower owned by Himes. It was the Home mill, and the flour of their make was widely known through New Hampshire and the eastern States fifty to sixty years ago. Next was the mill at the mouth of the upper sprout of the Mohawk. The dam was about opposite First street, and was not very high. Its value was destroyed at the opening of the canals; the State dam at Troy raising the water too much at this point. The State compensated the parties in interest by giving them an equal amount of power from the overflow of the Champlain canal.

The Shawtemack mills were built about 1834, on the site of the present Munson knitting-mill. They were built by Hugh White, and became widely known.

The various water-powers may be stated as follows: First, direct from the Mohawk by the State dam, running the Munson mills. Second, the Himes power, furnished by a separate dam. Third, the King canal. This is supplied by means of a dam from the mainland to a small rocky island, sometimes called Steamboat island; then another from that to Peebles' island. Fourth, the power from the Champlain canal. This is valuable, as the canal is elevated, and boats descend to the level of the Hudson by three successive locks. Near the point where the power is taken from the canal was an early saw-mill, run by a small creek.

In Waterford village Elias Dummer is still in business as a tinner, in which he has now been engaged fifty years or more.



WAR OF 1812.

Only a few names have been obtained of those who served in the last war with England, as follows: Tunis Waldron, Benjamin Goewy, William Van Every, Rubens Ryms, James Wilson, Daniel Guire, John R. Maxiber, George Finan, Philip Argosing, George Musgrave, Rusk Norway, Perth Mudhaling, William Carpensy, George Nichols, John Ives; also, Collins, Cline, and Keith. Nelson was the recruiting officer, and his rendezvous was in the school-house, where Morehouse's lumber-yard is now. He was a brother of Col. George Nelson, and was shot at Black Rock, across the Niagara river, below Buffalo.


In preparing the following list of those who went from the town of Waterford into the Union army of 1861-65, effort has been made to secure all the names, with an accurate record of each. But where the town authorities failed to write up a record as directed by the State in 1865, accuracy can hardly be expected twelve years afterwards. The list has been advertised and left for several weeks at the post-office for corrections and additions.

WAR OF 1861-65.

Ashdown Arthur.

John R. Britton, enl. Jan. 10, 1864, 77th Regt., Co. C; trans. to Vet. Bat., 77th Regt.

Ira Billingham, enl. Jan. 25, 1864, 13th Art., Co. F.

Nelson Batt, enl. July 26, 1861, 22d Regt., Co. A; disch. June 19, 1863, with regiment.

Courtlandt Backman, enl. March 1, 1862, 22d Regt., Co. A; disch. June 19, 1863.

James H. Brott, enl. May 2., 1861, 22d Regt., Co. A; 1st lieut.; resigned.

Benjamin Bace, enl. Sept;. 1861, 44th Regt.; killed at Fairfax Court-House.

Charles Bace, enl. May 2, 1861, 22d Regt., Co. A; prisoner Bull Run; ex-drummer; discharged; re-enlisted in the Navy; served full time in both. Died of consumption two years after the war.

Joseph Black, killed.

Sylvester Black, died in hospital.

Martin Cody, enl. May 2, 1861, 22d Regt., Co. A; disch.

William Curtis, enl May 2, 1861, 22d Regt., Co. A; pro. sergt.; disch. June 19, 1863.

John W. Clute, enl. July 29, 1861, 22d Regt., Co. A; disch.

Hiram Clute, enl. May 2, 1861, 22d Regt., Co. A; 2d lieut., pro. 1st lieut.; wounded at Bull Run, and died from effects of the wound.

Patrick Conway, killed in action.

Henry Dummer, enl. Aug. 5, 1862, 115th Regt., Co. H.

John Dugan, enl. Aug. 11, 1862, 115th Regt., Co. H.

Abram Devitt, enl. May 2, 1861, 22d Regt., Co. A; disch. June 19, 1863.

A.L. Estabrook, enl. May 2, 1861, 22d Regt., Co. A; 1st sergt.; pro. 2d lieut.; 1st lieut.; captain; disch. Jan. 19, 1863.

J.H. Francisco, enl. May 2, 1861, 22d Regt, Co. A; pro. corp.; disch. June 19, 1863.

James Frazier, enl. May 2, 1861; wounded at Antietam; disch. for wounds.

James H. Gettings, enl. Aug. 11, 1862, 115th Regt., Co. H.

Thomas H. Glavin, 8th Infantry, Regular Army.

John Halpin, enl. Aug. 11. 1862, 115th Regt., Co. H.

Lawrence Higgins, enl. Aug. 12, 1862, 115th Regt., Co. H.

James I. House, enl. Aug. 12, 1862, 115th Regt., Co. H.

Baker Housinger, enl. Aug. 12, 1862, 115th Regt., Co. H.

Patrick Hussey, enl. May 2, 1861, 22d Regt., Co. A; wounded at Bull Run; discharged for disability.

Henry W. Hart, enl. May 2, 1861, 22d Regt., Co. A; disch. June 19, 1863.

Joseph Harriman, enl. May 2, 1861, 22d Regt., Co. A; lost an arm at Bull Run; disch. for wounds in April, 1863.

Samuel Johnson, enl. May 2, 1861, 22d Regt., Co. A; raptured at Bull Run; exchanged; pro. sergeant; disch. June 19, 1863.

Charles N. Kilby, enl. May 2, 1861, 22d Regt., Co. A; disch, for disability.

Daniel Lavery, enl. May 2, 1861, 22d Regt., Co. A; disch. with regiment June 19, 1863.

Edward Lavery, enl. May 2, 1861, 22d Regt., Co. A; disch. June 19, 1863.

Oscar E. Little, enl. May 2, 1861, 22d Regt., Co. A; disch. for disability.

Patrick Morrissey, enl. May 2, 1861, 22d Regt., Co. A; disch. June 19, 1863.

Patrick McCall, enl. May 2, 1861, 22d Regt., Co. A; pro. to corp., sergt., 2d lieut.; disch. June 19, 1863; re-enl. March 29, 1865; ap. capt. 192d Regt., Co. K.; disch. Sept. 28, 1865.

John Murray, enl. July 26, 1861; wounded, and died from effects at South Mountain.

John M. Martratt, enl. March 29, 1862, Co. B, 93d Regt.; re-enl. March 29, 1864; disch. June 29, 1865.

Matthew H. Martratt, enl. Aug. 25, 1862, 169th Regt., Co. C; pro. to corp.; sergt., on field; lost his right arm at Cold Harbor; disch. July 27, 1865.

Patrick McCartey, enl. Nov. 11, 1858, in the U.S. Marine Corps; disch. Feb. 23, 1863; re-enl. Jan. 13, 1864, Co. G, 16th N.Y. H. Art.; wounded Oct. 7, 1864; disch. Aug. 28, 1865.

Charles E. Martratt, enl. Feb. 1, 1864; was drummer of Capt. John D. Sherward's, Co. D, 93d Regt., N.Y.S. Vols.; was wounded at Petersburg; was disch, on the 29th day of June, 1865, by reason of G.O. 158, H. Qrs. A. of P., June 22, 1865.

Charles Ogden, enl. Jan. 26, 1864, 13th Art., Co. E.

Benjamin O. Conner, enl. 3d Inf., Regular Army; served five years.

George H. Parkman. enl. Jan. 8, 1864, 13th Art., Co. E.

James W. Parks, enl. Jan. 14, 1864, 13th Art., Co. F.

George W. Porter, enl. March 1, 1862, 22d Regt., Co. A; disch. June 19, 1863.

Edwin Porter, enl. March 1, 1862, 22d Regt., Co. A; disch. for disability.

J.G. Porter, enl. March 1, 1862, 22d Regt., Co. A; killed at South Mountain, Sept. 14, 1863.

Samuel H. Peters, enl. 1861; was wounded at Spottsylvania C.-H., May 12, 1864; was killed at South Side R.R., 1864; was color sergt. Co. .C, 93d Regt., N.Y.S. vols.

Newton Peters, enl. 1861; re-enl. 1864; was drummer Co. C, 93d N.Y.S. Vols.; was disch. June 29, 1865.

George L. Rogers; term of service, three years.

Oliver Shaw, enl. Sept. 26, 1861, 77th Regt., Co. G; lost in action May 10, 1864.

Ezra T. Stone, enl. Aug. 4, 1862, 77th Regt., Co. C.

Harrison A. Stone, enl. March 1, 1862, 22d Regt., Co. A; disch. June 19, 1863.

Martin Slatterly, enl. March 1, 1862, 22d Regt., Co. A; disch. June 19, 1863.

Ralph A. Savage, enl. March 1, 1862, 22d Regt., Co. A; wounded at Bull Run; disch. for wounds.

John W. Schofield, 22d Cav.; pro. to hosp. steward.

Charles A. Schofield, enl.

John Singleton, shot through the left lung, and still lived.

Charles W. Shepherd, enl. Dec. 18, 1861, Co. H, 4th Regt., H. Art.; captured on the Welden R.R., Aug. 25; died at Salisbury prison, Jan. 25, 1864.

Henry Simpson, enl. Sept. 8, 1861, 6th Regt., N.Y.V. Cav Co. D; disch. July 24, 1862; re-enl. Jan. 5, 1864, in the 3d Regt., N.Y. Art., Co. B; disch. July 13, 1865.

Duane Shepherd, enl. Aug. 26, 1862, 115th Regt., Co., H; disch. July 21, 1863.

John Tenbroeck, enl. Sept. 1861, 44th Regt.; pro. to 1st lieut.; once supposed to be killed by concussion of air; was placed in the pit for burial, but revived in time to escape being covered.

John H. Van Order, enl. Aug. 12, 1862, 115th Regt., Co. H.

James Van Order, enl. Jan. 12, 1864, 13th Art., Co. F.

Barna Vandekar, enl. May 2, 1861, 22d Regt., Co. A; disch. June 19, 1863.

Joseph C. Vanderwerker, enl. May 2, 1861, 22d Regt., Co. A; disch. June 19, 1863.

Schuyler Vandekar, enl. May 2, 1861, 22d Regt., Co. A; disch. for disability.

William Van Antwerp, enl. May 2, 1861, 22d Regt., Co. A; wounded, and disch. at Antietam.

T.B. Vandekar, enl. May 2, 1861, 22d Regt., Co. A; sergeant; died in hospital.

John H. Vandewerker, enl. Dec. 14, 1861, 22d Regt., Co. A; died in hospital.

Jesse White, enl. Oct. 12, 1861, 77th Regt., Co. F; 1st lieut.; disch. for disability, Feb. 1863.

Martin Welsh, enl. Jan. 19, 1864, 13th Art., Co. E.

Joseph Wright, enl. Jan. 18, 1864, 13th Art., Co. E.

Edward White, enl. May 2, 1861, 22d Regt., Co. A; disch. June 19, 1863.

Giles B. Wood, enl. May 2, 1861, 22d Regt., Co. A; wounded at Antietam; disch. June 19, 1863,

Lewis Wells, enl. May 2, 1861, 22d Regt., Co. A; disch. June 19, 1863; re-enl. Feb. 1864; disch. Aug. 16, 1866.

Daniel G. Waldron, enl. May 2, 1861, 22d Regt., Co. A; discharged.

William Welch, enl. May 2, 1861, 22d Regt., Co. A.

Ira M. Wilson, enl. May 2, 1861, 22d Regt., Co. A; pro. to sergt.; disch. June 19, 1863.

Lemand Wager, enl. May 2, 1861, 22d Regt., Co. A; disch. for disability.

John Wright, enl. May 2, 1861, 22d Regt., Co. A; killed at South Mountain, Sept. 14, 1862.

Edward Welch, enl. March, 1865, 192d Regt., Co. C; disch. Sept. 1865.

Lewis B. Wells, enl. June 15, 1863, 13th Cav., N.Y.S. Vols.; killed March 3, 1864, near Vienna Station, Va.





Portrait of Stephen Bush


The Rev. Stephen Bush was a native of the town of Nassau, Rensselaer Co., N.Y. His parentage was of true New England stock. His grandfather, Major Abijah Bush, was active in the Revolutionary struggle. One of the three campaigns in which he served was that which made the famous retreat before Burgoyne up the St. Lawrence and south by Lake Champlain, which terminated at the battles of Bemus' Heights, in this county, in the surrender of Burgoyne and his entire army.

The subject of this sketch laid the foundation of his education in the common schools, where, at the age of thirteen, he became proficient in arithmetic, and by listening to the instruction in algebra given to a young man he acquired some knowledge of that science.

The loss of a faithful Christian mother now threatened to change the entire course of his life. She had devoted him to study, but at the age of fourteen, while a member of the Troy Practical School under Prof. C.H. Anthony, he was induced to leave the school to commence the trade of coach-making with his uncle, James Gould, of Albany. Here he remained until he was twenty-one years of age, spending all his leisure hours in study or in works of Christian labor, for he was active in most of the benevolent enterprises of the city. He was among the founders of the Young Men's Association, of Albany, whose library afforded him an opportunity to make advances in English literature. A member of the Second Presbyterian church, he was engaged in the work of Sabbath-school instruction, and for some years attended as teacher four sessions each Sabbath: two at the Mission House, Spring street; one in the afternoon at the Almshouse; and in the evening one at the Sabbath-school for colored people.

Having finished his trade and earned a few hundred dollars, he went to Massachusetts and completed his studies preparatory to college. His plan was to enter Union College at the beginning of junior year and take the previous studies at the academy. But, by the advice of the principal, the Rev. Mr. Hall, he spent-freshman and sophomore year at Williams College. At the close of this year, having gone through all his examinations with a good record, and with a commendatory letter of dismission from Dr. Hopkins, he entered Union College, where he was graduated in 1845, the semi-centennial year of the college. He next went to Princeton Theological Seminary, where he took the complete course of three years, and in 1848 was ordained to the ministry by the presbytery of Albany, in the same church of which he was a member, the Rev. Dr. Sprague's.

Having been appointed some months before as a missionary of the Presbyterian Board to the kingdom of Siam, he was married in June to Miss R. Arabella Fassett, the daughter of Amos Fassett, an honored elder of the First Presbyterian church of Albany. Not long after they sailed from Boston for their eastern home.

The next day after sailing they bid adieu to the lighthouses of Cape Cod and their native land, and never saw land again until they neared Sumatra: and sailed between it and Java through the straits of Sunda to make the harbor of Batavia. Here they spent four weeks studying the Malay language and becoming acquainted with the capital of Netherlands India. Afterwards a voyage of a thousand miles among the islands of the Indian archipelago brought them to Singapore, an English seaport on the British highway to China, where they spent six weeks, also in the study of Malay. An opportunity now offered to go directly to Bangkok in one of the ships belonging to the king of Siam, and another thousand miles of ocean travel was safely accomplished, and they found themselves sailing up broad Meinam to the city of Bangkok.

On the evening of their arrival an incident occurred of special interest. The reputation of Mr. Bush in science and philosophy had preceded him, and Siam's future king, Chow Fa Yai, hearing of his arrival, came with his royal retinue to make the acquaintance of Mr. Bush, and talk philosophy with the new missionary. Thus began a friendship which lasted while Mr. Bush remained in Siam, and bore fruit after the prince became king.

Chow Fa was himself the first scholar in his kingdom, and always ready to acquire knowledge. Some years after, when death had called Mrs. Bush to a higher sphere, and disease was warning him to leave his chosen home for a time, he wrote the king a letter expressing his desire to leave for a season. The king sent a royal barge to convey him to the palace, and, after giving him a pleasant audience of two hours, presented him with many tokens of his friendship, not the least of which was a substantial bag of silver coin "to aid in travel when he should reach home."

In 1853, Mr. Bush arrived in New York somewhat improved by the voyage, and found again a pleasant home with his eldest brother, Walter R. Bush, of Albany.

While here in quest of health, he was induced to minister to the Presbyterian church at Cohoes for a number of Sabbaths, and this resulted in another change in his lifework.

He was invited to make a home for a time in the family of Mr. Joshua Bailey, and nearly two years after received the adopted and only daughter of Mr. Bailey as his wife. He now remained in charge of this church for about seven years, when he resigned his pastorate to travel abroad. The commencement of the war delayed this for a time, and in the interval he served the churches in the vicinity, and with his father-in-law built their pleasant home in Waterford, where they moved in 1865.

Mr. Bush and his wife afterwards visited Europe, and, returning in 1867, he for six years had charge of the Presbyterian church on Green island, where his brother is interested in the extensive car-works of Gilbert, Bush & Co. Since the death of his father-in-law, Mr. Joshua Bailey, the cares incident to the management of his estate have devolved upon Mr. Bush, preventing his taking another charge; but he serves the church as opportunity offers, preaching frequently, and enjoying society in company with his amiable wife.

Mr. Bush has enjoyed rare facilities of travel, both at home and abroad, made many pleasant acquaintances in different parts of the world, and bids fair to enjoy the evening of life in his beautiful home surrounded by all the blessings which wealth, friends, and a happy family can bestow.




Portrait of Joshua Bailey


Joshua Bailey was not an ordinary man. Naturally endowed with strong characteristics and capabilities of a high order, he had the qualities to make him a leader of others in most things that engaged his attention. He might in a true sense be called a radical man, for he did not think in the ordinary channels of other men. He was a man of strong originality.

Born in East Hampton, Conn., in the year 1800, his father three years after sought a new home for his family in Meredith, Delaware Co., N.Y., when Joshua, the youngest son, early began the work of life by farming, manifesting even at this early age an ability to manufacture by adding two or three small enterprises to his farming operations.

His oldest brother, Timothy, likewise was possessed of strong mechanical abilities and tastes, so that when it was proposed to him, in 1832, to make a machine or loom to knit by power, he succeeded in doing so. When his first knitting-machine was so far completed that it would knit by a crank, he invited Joshua to join him, and they, together, in a room in Albany, N.Y., finished one frame, which was the humble foundation of a branch of American industry that at this time occupies so conspicuous a place among truly American enterprises.

When the success of this first frame was assured, Joshua returned to Delaware county, sold his farm and shops, and with five thousand dollars, the avails of his accumulations there, joined his brother and Mr. Egberts, a merchant of Albany, who had proposed the work to Timothy Bailey, in a firm to manufacture knit goods. A company had been formed to utilize the water-power of Cohoes Falls, of whom Stephen Van Rensselaer, the last patroon, was a prominent member. He had heard of the invention in Albany, and often called in to talk with the Messrs. Bailey, and watch the progress of the machine; and when completed he proposed that they go to Cohoes for the necessary power, which they did. And here, side by side, in that town of manufactures, began two important inventions in American machinery, viz., the engine-lathe by Wilkinson, and the knitting-machine by Bailey.

Occupying at first only a part of a building then completed, the company multiplied knitting-machines and enlarged their business, until it was regarded as prominent among the varied manufactories of Cohoes.

Timothy Bailey afterwards retired from the firm with about twenty thousand dollars, while Mr. Egberts and Joshua Bailey continued together, and, as they found, had but just begun to reap the reward of their persevering labor. For a few years prosperity followed them at every step, and they were enabled to build another, and then a third mill of larger capacity, for the same object. Finally, about 1850, each having acquired more than a competency, the firm was dissolved, and its interests divided.

Mr. Bailey, taking one of the mills, ran it for a year or two alone with great success. He then organized a company, to whom he sold one-half the interest, that he might be partially relieved from care. He was now able to live in all the comfort which a successful business career warranted. In 1854 he was induced to take the presidency of another company for knitting purposes, and personally superintended the building of what was described as the largest knitting-mill in the world, being three hundred and five feet long, seventy-five feet wide, part of it six stories high, and running thirteen sets of machinery. Mr. Bailey was the author of various improvements at almost every step of the new business, and contributed largely by his energy and perseverance in making the enterprise successful.

Among the improvements due to him there are perhaps none more important than that of heating buildings by steam; for there is no question that he was the first to introduce the system as a practical utility in this country. Somewhere about the year 1845, feeling the need of some better system of heating the factory than the stoves then in use, he conceived the idea of using steam in pipes. But the question arose how far steam could be carried through pipes before condensing. This question he found no one to answer, after seeking in vain in New York and Philadelphia. He then sought parties in Boston who dealt in pipe, and whom he finally induced to furnish pipe to him if he would experiment. The drawings for the pipes were made by him, sent to Boston, pipes received, a boiler put up, and all completed. It proved an entire success, and those pipes did good service for over twenty years. The system was copied by the Boston firm, until the heating of buildings by steam with pipes became common.

In 1857 the new system of water-works for the supply of the growing town was commenced, and Mr. Bailey was active as one of the chartered commissioners in its construction.

In 1862 he was called to mourn the loss of his lovely and accomplished wife, as he had a few years before mourned that of an only and promising son. And now his family consisted of himself, his adopted daughter, and her husband. His wife had been one of Connecticut's fairest daughters, born and reared in the pleasant old town of Glastenbury, near Hartford.

His residence in Cohoes having become almost surrounded by mills, he longed for a pleasanter home with more extensive grounds elsewhere, and the location for this was found in this county, in the town of Waterford, on what was known as a part of the old Van Schoonhoven estate. He purchased about twenty acres, a place of charming natural beauty, and erected a residence worthy of himself, and where he might spend his remaining years in leisure and comfort.

He was religiously educated and a Christian man from his youth. He was a member of the Presbyterian church in Cohoes, as were also his wife, son, and daughter, whose husband was its pastor for a number of years. Mr. Bailey was one of the original members of this church, and cherished its growth and development with a warm heart, and as he increased in wealth often made it the recipient of his generous bounty. When he removed to Waterford in 1865, he identified himself with the same branch of the Christian church there, of which he was a regular attendant, and an active and liberal supporter. He was made president of its board of trustees as a mark of respect for his character and generosity.

Mr. Bailey was modest, unassuming, and even retiring. He loved the society of the young, and was never happier than when his pleasant home was filled with company, or when in his carriage surrounded by children. He spent ten pleasant years in his Waterford home, and on January 21, 1875, was called to join his beloved wife and son, leaving the bulk of his earthly estate to those who had been children to him for many years, and to whom he had been a kind and loving father.




Portrait of Hugh White


The Hon. Hugh White was a native of Whitestown, Oneida Co., N.Y., where he was born on the 25th day of December, 1798. He was a son of Judge Hugh White, and a brother to Canvass White.

His early education was completed at Hamilton College, where he was graduated in the year 1823. He subsequently entered upon the study of the law in the office of Col. Charles G. Haines, of New York city, but being a man of great energy and enterprise, he soon tired of the dull lucubrations of Blackstone and Coke on Littleton, and turned his attention to business pursuits, engaging in agriculture, manufacturing, and contracting on public works.

In 1825 he located in Chittenango, Madison Co., N.Y. In 1830 he removed to Waterford, Saratoga Co., near the village of Cohoes, from which time he was identified with the business interests and subsequent growth of that place. Together with his brother, Canvass White, he planned the extensive works of the Cohoes company, and had charge of the same for many years. He also, in connection with other prominent men in New York and Albany, began the establishment of the works of the Harmony company. In each of these enterprises, as well as in many others in which he was engaged during his long and useful life, he manifested superior executive ability, and a determination of character which aimed to, and did, successfully accomplish whatever he undertook.

On April 10, 1828, Mr. White was united in marriage to Maria Mills Mansfield, of Kent, Conn. This lady is a daughter of William P. Mansfield and Sarah (Mills) Mansfield, and was born on the 5th day of February, in the year 1808. Mrs. White is still living at the date of this writing, May, 1878, a lady of rare culture and attainments, and of many lovable qualities of heart and soul. The result of this union was seven children, of whom two, a son and daughter, still survive, - the Hon. Wm. M. White, of Livingston Co., N.Y., and Mrs. Wm. W. Niles, of Fordham, Westchester Co., N.Y.

The Hon. Hugh White was a man of wide reputation. In the field of politics he obtained honorable distinction. He was elected a member of the House of Representatives of the United States in 1844, by his constituents of this district, then consisting of Saratoga, Schenectady, Fulton, and Hamilton counties, and was subsequently re-elected twice, finishing his official career in 1851. He arose to a prominent place in the House. Being a man of few words, but of great influence and power, be was especially useful in the performance of committee work, where his rare executive skill, excellent discriminating powers, and sound judgment made him a valuable counselor. He also occupied a high social position in Washington. He was accompanied by his wife and his daughter, Florilla, whose perfect beauty, grace, and refinement attracted universal admiration, both at the presidential levees and in the elegant rooms of her father, where she and her mother received the foremost gentlemen and ladies of the day. To the extreme grief of a large circle of friends, Miss White was early removed from earth.

At the time of his election to Congress he was a member of the Whig party, but he subsequently affiliated with the Republican party, whose principles he ever adhered to and supported with all the firmness of character and tenacity of purpose for which he was peculiar. He was a steady opponent of the institution of slavery, believing in the equality of all human beings, and in a broad construction of our national constitution in that particular. He was earnest in support of all war measures, and contributed freely, by money and personal influence, towards the suppression of the Rebellion.

In his business and church affiliations Hugh White evinced the same breadth of character and general usefulness that he manifested in his political career. At the time of his death, which occurred on Oct. 6, 1870, at the age of seventy-two, he was a trustee of the Presbyterian church at Waterford, where he went up for many years to worship God, and toward the erection of which he contributed with open-handed liberality. He lived a life of earnest, consistent "walking before God." He was also, at the time of his death, president of the Saratoga County National Bank, of Waterford, to which position he was elected in June, 1870, succeeding John Cramer. On the 5th of June, 1860, he was elected a director of this bank, and on June 14, 1864, was chosen vice-president. Resolutions expressive of his high character and many excellent qualities, as well as of sincere grief at his departure, and condolence with his family, were adopted by the board of directors on the day succeeding his death.

Hugh White was a large-hearted man, having a lively sympathy for the troubles and cares of others, and exhibiting that sympathy in practical contributions in the hour of need. There was nothing small in his character, in his feelings, in his deeds. Magnanimity was a ruling trait in his soul. He had a righteous hatred for all that was wrong, contemptible, and mean. He could suffer long and be kind, forgive and forget injuries to himself. He was a polished gentleman, of stately bearing and graceful manners; a man excellent in judgment, true in his words, wise in forethought, and of good business sagacity; an accomplished man, whom politics never soiled, who frowned on all dishonesty and fraud, and who belonged to a class of men in the national Congress upon which the nation looks back today with utmost respect and pride.




Portrait of Canvass White


This gentleman was born at Whitestown, N.Y., on the 8th day of September, in the year 1790. He was a son of Judge Hugh White, of that place, from whose family the town derived its name. During the War of 1812, Canvass White served as a soldier on the frontier for one campaign. He held the position of lieutenant in a volunteer corps, and was present at the sortie of Fort Erie.

As a practical as well as scientific engineer he had few equals, his sound judgment and strong native common sense peculiarly fitting him for that profession. He was one of the first and ablest engineers on the Erie canal, and while engaged on this, resided principally at Troy, N.Y. He subsequently resided in Reading and Bethlehem, in the State of Pennsylvania, and at the historic town of Princeton, Mercer Co., N.J. During this period he was engaged on the Union, Lehigh, and Delaware and Raritan canals.

In the year 1832, in company with his brother Hugh, he went to Cohoes, N.Y., and assisted in planning and erecting the well-known Cohoes works. His health at this time began to fail him. To repair his wasting vitality he visited the State of Florida, but his efforts proved futile to arrest the encroachments of disease, and he died at Angustura, in that State, on Dec. 18, 1834, at the age of forty-four years.

Canvass White was married in the year 1820, to Louisa Loomis, of Lowville, Lewis Co., N. Y. Several children were the fruits of this union, of whom one only is now living, Charles L., who resides in the picturesque town of Mauch Chunk, Carbon Co., Pa.

The portrait of Canvass White may be seen above. Those who are accustomed to study the human face as an index to character will observe in his countenance the marks of an untiring energy, indomitable will, and strong executive ability. To will, with Canvass White, was to do, while his natural courtesy and gentlemanly bearing enabled him to combine in graceful proportions the suaviter in modo with the fortiter in re. He lead an honest, upright, conscientious, and Christian life, and dying while yet in the maturity of his manhood, left behind him a memory green with the recollections of a life well spent, of duty well done, of opportunities well improved, and in the hope of a richer life beyond.




Portrait of John Cramer


was born at Old Saratoga, May 14, 1779. His father, Conrad Cramer, was of German descent, and settled upon a farm, about three miles southwest of Schuylerville, before the Revolution. Notwithstanding the surrender of Burgoyne in October, 1777, the Tories and Indians from time to time continued to make raids. In May, 1779, such a raid was made into the neighborhood where Conrad Cramer resided with his wife and four small children. On the 14th of May they hastily packed their wagon with what comforts one team could carry, and started on their flight southerly. They reached the river-road and proceeded as far south as the farm now owned by Lohnas, about five miles south of Schuylerville, when night overtook them. At that place there was a small house used as a tavern, but, as it was already full, the Cramer family were obliged to remain in their wagon, and on that same evening the mother gave birth to John Cramer. The next morning the family continued the flight to what is now known as the Fitzgerald neighborhood, about three miles south of Mechanicville, where they obtained a small house, in which they remained until it was considered safe to return to their home in the wilderness.

Young Cramer received a liberal education, and chose the profession of the law. About 1800 he opened a law-office in Waterford, and he continued to reside in that village during the remainder of his long life. Waterford was then the head of navigation upon the Hudson river, and no canals or railroads then extended into the interior. Farmers were in the habit of bringing their grain and produce from a great distance to Waterford, and in return carted goods from its stores. It was then the most important commercial place in this State north of Albany, and some of the leading men from New England and the lower counties of New York settled there about the beginning of this century. Among those may be named Ira Scott, John Stewart, John House, and Eli M. Todd. John Cramer at once entered upon a lucrative practice, and within twenty years had accumulated $100,000, which was an immense fortune for that period. At an early age he became an active politician, and in 1804 was elected a presidential elector, and voted for the re-election of Thomas Jefferson. He was elected a member of the State Assembly in 1806, again in 1811, and, finally, in 1841. In 1821 he was a delegate to the State Convention for forming a new Constitution, and took a leading part in that body, which consisted of such men as Martin Van Buren, Governor Tompkins, and Samuel Young. Although then a man of large wealth and conservative in his opinions, to the surprise of his associates he made a speech in favor of abolishing the property qualification of voters, and probably did more than any other member towards carrying that measure. As he took his seat on that occasion Van Buren said to him, "Is that not a little too Democratic?"

In 1823 he was elected to the State Senate from the Fourth district, which extended to the St. Lawrence river. Joseph C. Yates was then governor, and hesitated about appointing some person for judge who was recommended by Cramer and opposed by Halsey Rogers. Cramer thereupon stated to the governor that Rogers said that he dare not make the appointment. The governor replied, "Does Halsey Rogers say that? I will show him who is governor of the State of New York," and at once sent in the nomination, which Cramer induced the Senate speedily to confirm.

In 1824, Cramer brought forward his friend Colonel Samuel Young, of Saratoga County, for governor, and procured his nomination upon the Jackson ticket, while De Witt Clinton was the candidate upon the Adams ticket. As the State was carried by J.Q. Adams for President, Colonel Young failed of an election.

John W. Taylor was a member of Congress from this district from 1812 to 1832, and was Speaker of the House of Representatives, after Mr. Clay went into the cabinet. His great popularity and twenty years' service in Congress made him an almost invincible candidate. In 1832, John Cramer was pitted against him, and, after the hardest-fought political contest which the State had then witnessed, was elected member of the House from this district, and was re-elected in 1834. He served in the House with James K. Polk and other distinguished men, during the last term of Jackson's administration.

Although Mr. Cramer seldom took part in public debate, yet he exercised as much influence as any member, and he rarely failed to carry a point which he advocated. So well was this conceded by his colleagues that, after his term had expired, Mr. Polk sent for him to come to Washington at the organization of a subsequent House, to aid him in his canvass for the speakership. Polk was successful, and always remained grateful to Mr. Cramer.

The Whig party having carried the State in 1838, and also this Congress district, the Democratic party in 1840 put forward their strong men, and made a determined effort to redeem the State. To this end Cramer was nominated for Congress, Judge Linn, of Schenectady, being his opponent. After a hard-fought contest the latter was successful by a small majority.

Although then upwards of sixty years of age, his ambition would not allow him to retire under defeat, and the next year, 1841, he accepted a nomination for the Assembly upon the same ticket with Halsey Rogers, and both were elected. During the succeeding session of 1842, he carried through the election law, which has remained substantially in force ever since.

When Mr. Polk was elected President, in 1844, a bitter contest arose as to the member of the cabinet to be selected from this State. Mr. Cramer sustained Governor Wm. L. Marcy, while Silas Wright, then elected governor, advocated a man representing the "soft" or anti-slavery wing of the party. Cramer proceeded to Washington. His superior skill in political diplomacy triumphed, and Governor Marcy was appointed Secretary of War.

Mr. Cramer never would accept the office of judge or any other minor appointment; his independent nature made him a natural leader, and he would never hold an office or act in what he considered an inferior station.

John Cramer was a natural leader, and exercised a powerful influence upon the politics of the State for more than fifty years, and for a longer period than any other one man. He was indomitable in his energy, and would overlook no point to secure success. He would stand by his friends in all extremities, but would go equally far to overthrow his opponents. He did probably more than any other man in early times to advance the fortunes of Mr. Van Buren; but previous to 1844 they differed, when he used all of his efforts to defeat his nomination that year. So with Colonel Young, of this county. He prevented his nomination in 1824, and in 1843 he defeated his election by the Legislature for Secretary of State. For more than fifty years he dictated nearly every nomination made by the Democrats in this county, and was concluded to be the Warwick of Saratoga.

Although he always adhered to the Democratic party, yet when the rebels fired upon Fort Sumter his patriotism at once arrayed him on the side of the Union, and he headed a subscription in the town of Waterford with the sum of $1000 to aid in raising volunteers for the war. When the company from that town was organised under Captain Yates, and marched for the camp at North Troy, John Cramer, on foot, marched at the head of the column, although then upwards of eighty-two years old.

He died at his residence in Waterford June 1, 1870, aged ninety-one years and sixteen days. He left four sons and two daughters surviving him, and the children of Eliphalet, his oldest son, who died at Milwaukee before the death of his father. Mary, his oldest daughter, was the wife of the Honorable Edward Curtis, who was four years a member of Congress from New York city before 1841. Mr. Curtis was collector of New York under General Harrison, and was continued under President Tyler as long as his friend Daniel Webster remained Secretary of State. Mrs. Curtis was drowned on the ill-fated steamer "Ville du Havre" a few years since. Harriet, the youngest daughter of Mr. Cramer, is the wife of John K. Porter, formerly judge of the court of appeals. George H. Cramer, of Troy, president of the Rensselaer and Saratoga railroad company, is the oldest surviving son of John Cramer. William E., another son, is the editor and proprietor of the Wisconsin, a daily paper published at Milwaukee. John C., the youngest son now living, remains in the old homestead at Waterford. The fifth son, Charles, one of the best linguists in the country, died about three years since.

John Cramer accumulated a large fortune, which he left to his children; but during his life performed many acts of charity among the poor. Especially among the sick and suffering he was always sympathetic and generous, and many have reason to bless his memory.



Among the prominent men who, in the earlier part of their lives, became widely known while living outside the boundary of Saratoga County, yet later in life became permanent residents of the county for many years and at length died, there was Judge Cheever, late of Waterford. {Prepared by William H. Shirland, of Troy.} Samuel Cheever was the son of Samuel and Elizabeth Cheever, and was born at North Brookfield, Mass., Nov. 22, 1787. His father was a farmer, and was thoroughly imbued with the then prevailing tradition that a son should yield duty and service to his father until majority; and young Cheever was kept at farm-work until he had attained the age of twenty-one years, and in the mean time he attended a district school during the winter months, and pursued his studies under self-tutelage at such odd times as he could while at work. Having a natural bent for the acquisition of knowledge, together with an excellent memory, he became well read in standard literature and proficient in Latin and Greek.

After attaining his majority, he left home and commenced the study of law, attending the lectures of Judge Gould, and at the same time maintained himself by teaching Latin and Greek to young men, and among his pupils were numbered several persons who have become men of celebrity in the nation.

In 1808 he left Massachusetts, and removed to Salem, Washington county, in this State, where he continued his legal study. Soon after he came to Troy and established himself at the corner of Congress and First streets, he commenced the practice of his profession. He was successful, and had the reputation of a reliable, studious, and conscientious lawyer.

In 1818 he married Mrs. Julia Jones, the wife of a former prominent and wealthy merchant of Troy. While at Troy he was elected to and ably filled the office of district attorney for Rensselaer county.

At the termination of his term of office he removed to Albany and there practiced law, residing during a portion of the time in the large and ancient mansion (built in the seventeenth century, and still standing). He retired from professional practice from Albany to his farm at Bemus Heights, Saratoga County, where he remained but a short time, when he removed to Waterford, at which place he remained until his death. Judge Cheever was always a member of the Democratic party, an associate and friend of Wright and Marcy, an active and influential politician.

Judge Cheever, during his later years, was a contributor to a number of New York papers and periodicals, and aside from this employment, he occupied himself with the care of the McIntyre estate, for which he was agent, and which was owned in part by his daughter, Mrs. James McIntyre, and her children.

On religious matters, Judge Cheever was of very liberal opinions, and had devoted much study to the subject on the east side of the river, opposite Albany. At Albany he was elected county judge, or "First Judge" as it was called, and some of his excellent legal opinions, delivered at that time, will long survive him. Judge Cheever was one of the commissioners of the Boston and Albany railroad, and to him, more perhaps than to any other person, that road owes its existence. He was a practical surveyor, and assisted in the purchase of the land used by, and the laying out of the line. He was also, to a great extent, instrumental in the organization and equipment of the Albany and Susquehanna railroad.

Among other public positions filled by Judge Cheever was the presidency of the State Agricultural Society, of which society he was always a friend. He was one of the commissioners appointed to lay out the city of Brooklyn. He also served as State canal commissioner, and was director of numerous private corporations. He usually attended the Presbyterian church, of which society his family were members. He reached the advanced age of eighty-seven years, and his mental force and vigor were entirely unimpaired. His final brief sickness was the result of a cold, and he died at his home in Waterford, Sept. 25, 1874.



Isaac C. Ormsby, son of Ira Ormsby, was born in the town of Greenfield, this county, April 24, 1820. He was educated at the district school of his native town, Judge Bockes having been his last instructor. For several winters he himself "taught the young idea how to shoot," but subsequently (in 1845) entered the office of Ellis & Bullard, at Waterford, fully determined to follow the law. James B. McKean (afterwards judge) was pursuing his studies in the same office at the time. He made rapid progress, being admitted to the common pleas bar in 1846, and to that of the Supreme Court in June following. He was elected district attorney in 1862, and again in 1865. In 1871 he was again called upon to discharge the duties of the same office, and was re-elected in 1874. His twelve years' incumbency of the office of district attorney proved him to be "a fearless and honest public officer and a faithful public prosecutor." Since his admission to the bar, Mr. Ormsby has gained and maintained a successful law practice at Waterford, his home. He is of medium stature, and possessed of a vital temperament and intuitive mind-qualities, eminently fitting him for his profession, and for the important office he has filled so long.



Chesselden Ellis, who has frequently been mentioned in these pages, was born in the State of Vermont, at New Windsor, in the year 1808. He was graduated from Union College in 1823, studied law with the Hon. John Cramer, of Waterford, and was admitted to the bar in 1829. He soon attained to a remunerative practice, but preferred to be known as a counsellor rather than as an advocate. Upon the resignation of Nicholas Hill, Jr., in 1837, he was appointed district attorney. He held this office until Sept. 11, 1843, then resigning to take his seat in Congress. General E.F. Bullard, his law-partner, used his influence successfully in securing for Mr. Ellis the Democratic nomination for Congress in 1842. He was elected. In 1844 he was a candidate for re-election, but was defeated by the Whig candidate, Hon. Hugh White. In 1845 he removed to New York city, and resumed the practice of his profession as senior of the firm of Ellis, Burrill & Davison, which he continued uninterruptedly until his death, which occurred in 1854.

His personnel is thus described: "He was five feet nine inches in height, of splendid physique, weighing about one hundred and eighty pounds. To a sound body was united a mind strongly imbued with fine literary tastes." He was naturally diffident, but a vigorous debater when aroused. He was a great admirer of Calhoun, and when in Congress was on intimate terms with the great "Nullifier." His personal influence with President Tyler was also great; sufficiently so, at least, as to place at his disposal the vacant seat on the Supreme Court bench, rendered vacant by the death of Judge Thompson. He designated Judge Cowen, who declined; Chancellor Walworth was then appointed, but rejected by the Senate; and Judge Nelson was subsequently appointed by President Polk.

Residence of the late Hon. Hugh White

Elm Park - Residence of Rev. Stephen Bush




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